Debiasing NLU Models without Degrading the In-distribution Performance

Rasa Open Source deploys on premises or on your own private cloud, and none of your data is ever sent to Rasa. All user messages, especially those that contain sensitive data, remain safe and secure on your own infrastructure. That’s especially important in regulated industries like healthcare, banking and insurance, making Rasa’s open source NLP software the go-to choice for enterprise IT environments. Rasa Open Source is the most flexible and transparent solution for conversational AI—and open source means you have complete control over building an NLP chatbot that really helps your users. This record would be part of our analysis, if we just use NER with the above mentioned filtering. The relation.bodypart.directions model can classify for each entity pair, wether they are related or not.

nlu models

This very rough initial model can serve as a starting base that you can build on for further artificial data generation internally and for external trials. This is just a rough first effort, so the samples can be created by a single developer. When you were designing your model intents and entities earlier, you would already have been thinking about the sort of things your future users would say. You can leverage your notes from this earlier step to create some initial samples for each intent in your model. Your software can take a statistical sample of recorded calls and perform speech recognition after transcribing the calls to text using machine translation.


To remove such confounder, the backdoor adjustment with causal intervention is utilized to find the true causal effect, which makes the training process fundamentally different from the traditional likelihood estimation. On the other hand, in inference process, we formulate the bias as the direct causal effect and remove it by pursuing the indirect causal effect with counterfactual reasoning. Experimental results show that our proposed debiasing framework outperforms previous state-of-the-art debiasing methods while maintaining the original in-distribution performance.

Apply natural language processing to discover insights and answers more quickly, improving operational workflows. Nuance provides a tool called the Mix Testing Tool (MTT) for running a test set against a deployed NLU model and measuring the accuracy of the set on different metrics. Note that it is fine, and indeed expected, that different instances of the same utterance will sometimes fall into different partitions. This section provides best practices around generating test sets and evaluating NLU accuracy at a dataset and intent level..

Things to pay attention to while choosing NLU solutions

But over time, natural language generation systems have evolved with the application of hidden Markov chains, recurrent neural networks, and transformers, enabling more dynamic text generation in real time. If you expect users to do this in conversations built on your model, you should mark the relevant entities as referable using anaphoras, and include some samples in the training set showing anaphora references. This document is not meant to provide details about how to create an NLU model using Mix.nlu, since this process is already documented. The idea here is to give a set of best practices for developing more accurate NLU models more quickly. This document is aimed at developers who already have at least a basic familiarity with the Mix.nlu model development process. The Rasa stack also connects with Git for version control.Treat your training data like code and maintain a record of every update.

nlu models

This allows us to resolve tasks such as content analysis, topic modeling, machine translation, and question answering at volumes that would be impossible to achieve using human effort alone. Entity recognition identifies which distinct entities are present in the text or speech, helping the software to understand the key information. Named entities would be divided into categories, such as people’s names, business names and geographical locations. Numeric entities would be divided into number-based categories, such as quantities, dates, times, percentages and currencies.

Annotate data using Mix

The Rasa Research team brings together some of the leading minds in the field of NLP, actively publishing work to academic journals and conferences. The latest areas of research include transformer architectures for intent classification and entity extraction, transfer learning across dialogue tasks, and compressing large language models like BERT and GPT-2. As an open source NLP tool, this work is highly visible and vetted, tested, and improved by the Rasa Community. Open source NLP for any spoken language, any domain Rasa Open Source provides natural language processing that’s trained entirely on your data. This enables you to build models for any language and any domain, and your model can learn to recognize terms that are specific to your industry, like insurance, financial services, or healthcare.

nlu models

You can process whitespace-tokenized (i.e. words are separated by spaces) languages
with the WhitespaceTokenizer. If your language is not whitespace-tokenized, you should use a different tokenizer. We support a number of different tokenizers, or you can
create your own custom tokenizer.

Use NLU now with Qualtrics

To do this, you need to access the diagnostic_data field of the Message
and Prediction objects, which contain
information about attention weights and other intermediate results of the inference computation. You can use multi-intent classification to predict multiple intents (e.g. check_balances+transfer_money), or to model hierarchical intent structure (e.g. feedback+positive being more similar to feedback+negative nlu models than chitchat). It is best to compare the performances of different solutions by using objective metrics. Computers can perform language-based analysis for 24/7  in a consistent and unbiased manner. Considering the amount of raw data produced every day, NLU and hence NLP are critical for efficient analysis of this data. A well-developed NLU-based application can read, listen to, and analyze this data.

  • Use the Natural Language Understanding (NLU) Evaluation tool in the developer console to batch test the natural language understanding (NLU) model for your Alexa skill.
  • Similar NLU capabilities are part of the IBM Watson NLP Library for Embed®, a containerized library for IBM partners to integrate in their commercial applications.
  • In our example, it can classify that left and foot are related and that right and hand are related.
  • Training and evaluating NLU models from the command line offers a decent summary, but sometimes you might want to evaluate the model on something that is very specific.

In this example, the NLU technology is able to surmise that the person wants to purchase tickets, and the most likely mode of travel is by airplane. The search engine, using Natural Language Understanding, would likely respond by showing search results that offer flight ticket purchases. Rather than relying on computer language syntax, Natural Language Understanding enables computers to comprehend and respond accurately to the sentiments expressed in natural language text. When you upload annotations from a data file, the upload replaces any existing annotations in the annotation set. After you define and build an interaction model, you can use the NLU Evaluation tool.

IBM and ESPN use AI models built with watsonx to transform fantasy football data into insight

So in the case of an initial model prior to production, the split may end up looking more like 33%/33%/33%. For reasons described below, artificial training data is a poor substitute for training data selected from production usage data. In short, prior to collecting usage data, it is simply impossible to know what the distribution of that usage data will be. In other words, the primary focus of an initial system built with artificial training data should not be accuracy per se, since there is no good way to measure accuracy without usage data. Instead, the primary focus should be the speed of getting a “good enough” NLU system into production, so that real accuracy testing on logged usage data can happen as quickly as possible.

Having support for many languages other than English will help you be more effective at meeting customer expectations. Using our example, an unsophisticated software tool could respond by showing data for all types of transport, and display timetable information rather than links for purchasing tickets. Without being able to infer intent accurately, the user won’t get the response they’re looking for. Without a strong relational model, the resulting response isn’t likely to be what the user intends to find. The key aim of any Natural Language Understanding-based tool is to respond appropriately to the input in a way that the user will understand. The voice assistant uses the framework of Natural Language Processing to understand what is being said, and it uses Natural Language Generation to respond in a human-like manner.

Design conversations to be helpful, not human

Alexa then uses this value instead of the actual current date and time when calculating the date and time slot values. The order of the components is determined by
the order they are listed in the config.yml; the output of a component can be used by any other component that
comes after it in the pipeline. Some components only produce information used by other components
in the pipeline.

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